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rarediseases.org/rare-diseases/renal-cell-carcinoma

Stage 1 occurs when the tumor is confined to the kidney tissues themselves; ... or the tumor has involved lymph nodes and kidney veins or vena cava; Stage 4 ...

austinurologyinstitute.com/cancer-care/kidney-cancer

In general, cancers with higher T stage, lymph node metastasis, or distant metastasis have a worse prognosis and shorter survival rates, and these patients need ...

www.urologists.org/article/treatments/kidney-cancer-treatments

The primary treatment for almost all renal cell carcinomas in stages I, II, or III is surgery to remove the cancerous tissue. When cancer has metastasized ...