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In chemistry, orbital hybridisation (or hybridization) is the concept of mixing atomic orbitals into new hybrid orbitals (with different energies, shapes, etc., than the component atomic orbitals) suitable for the pairing of electrons to form chemical bonds in valence bond theory.


These sp^3 hybridized orbitals are oriented with bond angle of 109.5 degrees to minimize electron repulsion, in a tetrahedral geometry. An example of sp^3 hybridization can be seen in the carbons in ethane. In an sp^2 hybridization, color(red)"one" s orbital is mixed with color(red)"two" p orbitals to form color(red)"three" sp^2 hybridized ...


In sp hybridization, the s orbital overlaps with only one p orbital. Atoms that exhibit sp hybridization have sp orbitals that are linearly oriented; two sp orbitals will be at 180 degrees to each other. Any central atom surrounded by just two regions of valence electron density in a molecule will exhibit sp hybridization.


Each sp 3 hybrid orbital has 25% s character and 75% p character. Example of sp 3 hybridization: ethane (C 2 H 6), methane. sp 3 d Hybridization. sp 3 d hybridization involves the mixing of 3p orbitals and 1d orbital to form 5 sp3d hybridized orbitals of equal energy. They have trigonal bipyramidal geometry.


sp 3 HYBRIDIZATION - EXAMPLE 1) Methane (CH 4) * During the formation of methane molecule, the carbon atom undergoes sp 3 hybridization in the excited state by mixing one ‘2s’ and three 2p orbitals to furnish four half filled sp 3 hybrid orbitals, which are oriented in tetrahedral symmetry in space around the carbon atom.


sp Hybridization. sp Hybridization can explain the linear structure in molecules. In it, the 2s orbital and one of the 2p orbitals hybridize to form two sp orbitals, each consisting of 50% s and 50% p character. The front lobes face away from each other and form a straight line leaving a 180° angle between the two orbitals.


Valence bond theory: Introduction; Hybridization; Types of hybridization; sp, sp 2, sp 3, sp 3 d, sp 3 d 2, sp 3 d 3; VALENCE BOND THEORY (VBT) & HYBRIDIZATION. The valence bond theory was proposed by Heitler and London to explain the formation of covalent bond quantitatively using quantum mechanics. Later on, Linus Pauling improved this theory by introducing the concept of hybridization.


All right, so once again we have four SP three hybrid orbitals, and each one of these hybrid orbitals is gonna have an electron in it, so we can see that each one of these SP three hybrid orbitals has one electron in there, like that, and so the final orbital, the final hybrid orbitals here contain 25 percent S character.