The difference between a sodium atom and a sodium ion is that sodium atoms have a neutral charge, while sodium ions have a positive charge. Sodium ions are written with its symbol (Na) and a plus (+) sign. Sodium atoms a... More »

The cell membrane is not very permeable to sodium ions, so they must enter through a process known as facilitated diffusion. In facilitated diffusion, sodium passes through the cell membrane in a voltage-gated ion channe... More »

The hypochlorite ion, ClO-, is the negative ion of hypochlorous acid, HOCl. It is produced when molecular chlorine, Cl2, is dissolved in water or in a solution of sodium hydroxide, NaOH. It is also produced industrially ... More » Science Chemistry Atoms & Molecules

When a reaction is described through a balanced equation, it is possible to determine the exact amount of each atom, ion and molecule needed on each side of the equation. Balanced equations are determined using a techniq... More »

A phosphite ion consists of one phosphorus atom covalently bonded to three oxygen atoms. Each oxygen atom has one extra valence electron, giving the phosphite ion an overall charge of -3. The chemical formula of a phosph... More »

Often misused or misunderstood, most basically a phosphate is a polyatomic ion with the molecular formula O4P-3; what this means in terms of chemical composition is that a central phosphorus atom is surrounded by 4 oxyge... More »

Non-ionic detergents are detergents that don't include any ionic group, carry any charge or react with hard water ions. These detergents also are called neutral detergents because they are made of equal strengths of acid... More »