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www.reference.com/article/kidney-stones-32025772fea470fc

Kidney stones are small, hard deposits made of mineral and acid salts that form inside the kidney, states Mayo Clinic. Stones often form when minerals stick together when the urine becomes concentrated. Types of kidney stones include struvite stones, cystine stones, uric acid stones and calcium ston

www.reference.com/article/different-surgery-options-kidney-stones-bd7a1f186b963346

Surgery options for kidney stones include removal of the stones using a scope inserted through the back, use of a ureteroscope through the urethra or removal of the parathyroid, according to Mayo Clinic. Doctors also use sound waves to break up the stone, which sometimes requires anesthesia.

www.reference.com/world-view/causes-kidney-stones-152de347e44e4d80

According to Mayo Clinic, there is no single cause of kidney stones; however, there are several factors that increase the risk of their development. These include a diet high in sodium, not drinking enough water, excess calcium oxalate in the blood, too high a concentration of uric acid, certain her

www.reference.com/article/can-cause-kidney-stones-1f94d256472245a

Excess calcium oxalate in the blood, too high a concentration of uric acid, certain hereditary disorders and urinary tract infections can all cause kidney stones, says Mayo Clinic. There are several different types of kidney stone, and each has a different cause.

www.reference.com/world-view/removal-kidney-stones-require-surgery-3347347442e0ccec

If a kidney stone is too large to pass through the urinary tract, a surgeon might perform a ureteroscopy to remove the stone from the body. Although a surgeon removes the stone, ureteroscopy is considered an outpatient procedure, according to the National Kidney Foundation.

www.reference.com/article/kidney-stones-form-66efaed1a982cb01

Kidney stones are formed when there are highly concentrated substances in the urine, such as oxalate, phosphorus and calcium. When individuals do not drink enough water or other fluids, they are at a higher risk for kidney stones because their urine is more concentrated. Kidney stones vary in shape

www.reference.com/article/big-kidney-stone-a085251c810c3a5

The size of a kidney stone ranges between a crystal of sugar to a ping pong ball, according to WebMD. Most people do not notice kidney stones until they begin to cause damage.

www.reference.com/article/causes-kidney-stones-3ebd97b60cdbe

Kidney stones occur when urine has a high level of crystal-forming substances that is more than the fluid in urine can dilute out or when urine lacks substances to prevent crystals from sticking together, according to Mayo Clinic. There are multiple types of kidney stones, each forming under differe

www.reference.com/article/can-kidney-stones-prevented-e74d200e6b76234f

Drinking plenty of fluids, eating a balanced diet and keeping a healthy body weight are most helpful in the prevention of kidney stones, according to information provided by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Certain foods are more likely to promote stone formation in susceptible pers

www.reference.com/world-view/symptoms-kidney-stones-86089be01ca80dda

According to Mayo Clinic, symptoms of kidney stones include frequent urination; side and back pain that moves to the lower abdomen and groin and that may come in waves; urine that may be cloudy and smells bad and/or is brown, red or pink; nausea; and fever if an infection has taken hold. WebMD says