Two common examples of mutualism in the tundra biome include the beneficial coexistence between the alga and the fungus in a lichen and the reciprocal partnership between tundra swans and sago pondweed. Mutualism is a ty... More »

Symbiotic relationships on the tundra include nematode parasitism on caribou, bacterial mutualism with pitcher plants and nematode commensalism on black flies. Symbiosis is long-term dependence of one species on another ... More »

Lichens, the primary producer in the tundra biome, exemplify symbiosis as they are actually a blend of a fungus and an alga which support one another. The fungus provides water for both, and the alga provides the food. More » Science Biology

The arctic tundra biome supports a food chain that begins with plants as primary producers at the bottom. Herbivores consume the plants; and, primary small omnivores hunt the herbivores. Secondary or larger predator carn... More »

There are three types of symbiotic relationships that occur in the desert: mutualism, commensalism and parasitism. Examples are, respectively, yucca plants and yucca moths, dung beetles and the dung of other animals, and... More »

The relationship between the arctic fox and polar bears and that between pitcher plant midges and mosquitoes are examples of commensalism in the tundra biome. Commensal interactions provide an advantage to an individual ... More »

The fungi-like protists of Kingdom Protista comprise a group including slime molds and water molds. These molds are simple, unicellular organisms that are fungi-like in appearance and habitat, according to Cliffs Notes. ... More »