Some medieval illuminated manuscripts are the Book of Kells, the Lindisfarne Gospels, the French Book of Hours, the Rochester Bestiary and the Codex Aureus. Medieval illuminated manuscripts include Bibles, gospels, praye... More » History Middle Ages

For fun during the Middle Ages, peasants danced, wrestled, bet on cockfighting and bear baiting, and played an early version of football. On Sundays, peasants were allowed to rest and go to church. Some pious peasants un... More » History Middle Ages

The Byzantine Empire made many contributions including preserving Greek and Roman cultures. The empire was responsible for ensuring that the words of many great philosophers survived. More » History Middle Ages
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The Reformation began in northern and central Europe with reformers such as John Calvin, Henry VIII and Martin Luther. These leaders questioned the Catholic Europe and the Catholic Church's ability to dictate Christian p... More » History Middle Ages

The Middle Ages were given their name in retrospect during the Renaissance in the 14th century. The Renaissance was a time of great cultural change and many looked to ancient Greece and Rome for inspiration. The Middle A... More » History Middle Ages

As a result of the Crusades, Europe saw tremendous intellectual growth, a strengthening of the merchant class through expansion in trade and the rise of new banking institutions. Unfortunately, all of these benefits came... More » History Middle Ages

The neoclassical era had characteristics that were focused around accuracy, order and structure. The era, in opposition to the renaissance era, showed man as a flawed individual. More » History Middle Ages