Solids are a type of matter that hold their constituent particles tightly packed by using strong intermolecular forces and short internuclear distance. At low temperatures, the solid particles oscillate at their mean pos... More »

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Every living and non-living component that comprises matter consists of molecules, which are formed from the chemical combination of microscopic particles known as atoms. Unlike atoms, molecules are able to transition fr... More »

The atomic theory formulated by the British chemist John Dalton proposes that atoms are indivisible particles comprising all matter; atoms of the same element share identical properties, including shape, size and mass; a... More »

Leptons and quarks constitute the smallest particles of matter, based on contemporary evidence in the field of particle physics. Traditionally, the atom was considered as the indivisible form of matter. More »

The strong nuclear force, one of the four fundamental universal forces, is responsible for holding atoms together. Without it, the nucleus, consisting of positive protons and neutral neutrons, would have nothing to stop ... More »

Intermolecular forces are responsible for the physical properties of a substance, such as its melting or boiling point, viscosity, solubility, surface tension and evaporation. The types of intermolecular forces are ionic... More »

Ion-dipole forces are inter-molecular forces that occur between an ion and a polar molecule. An ion is an atom or group of atoms that holds an electrical charge, while a dipole refers to a molecule that possesses a deloc... More »