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Ligamentum flavum hypertrophy is a condition in which the ligamentum flava grows wider and larger and expands toward the central spinal canal. It is also referred to as ligamentum flavum thickening. More »

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Compression of the thecal sac means the protective membrane covering the spinal cord is experiencing extra pressure, according to Merck Manuals. Effacement of the thecal sac means that the thecal sac is being shortened o... More »

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Non-specific ST-T wave abnormalities can be caused by digitalis effect, myocardial ischemia, hypokalemia, left ventricular hypertrophy with strain and reciprocal changes from an ST elevation myocardial injury. Getting an... More »

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Facet hypertrophy occurs when a spinal nerve root is pinched by vertebral joint enlargement, reports Cedars Sinai. Facet joints exist between the vertebrae and allow the spine to bend and twist. Nerve roots pass through ... More »

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Cardiac hypertrophy happens when the muscles of the heart thicken, according to the University of Southern California Keck School of Medicine. This means that there is less room in the heart for the chambers, including t... More »

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When the kidneys cease to function, a person suffers from a condition called uremia, as stated by Temple University Hospital. If the condition cannot be reversed, it can be referred to as end-stage renal disease. More »

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Addressing the underlying condition is the primary treatment for dyspnea, or difficulty breathing, and may include taking antibiotics for an infection, draining fluid from filled lungs, shrinking a tumor with chemotherap... More »

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