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www.uscourts.gov/.../comparing-federal-state-courts

The State Court System: Article III of the Constitution invests the judicial power of the United States in the federal court system. Article III, Section 1 specifically creates the U.S. Supreme Court and gives Congress the authority to create the lower federal courts. The Constitution and laws of each state establish the state courts.

litigation.findlaw.com/legal-system/federal-vs-state...

There are two kinds of courts in this country -- state courts and federal courts. Following is a discussion of key differences between the state and federal court systems. Establishment of State and Federal Courts. State and local courts are established by a state (within states there are also local courts that are established by cities ...

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/State_court_(United_States)

Essentially all probate and divorce cases are also brought in state court, even if the parties involved live in different states. In practice, almost all real property evictions and foreclosures are handled in state court. State courts systems always contain some courts of "general jurisdiction".

www.courts.state.va.us/courts/home.html

Virginia's Court System ... and certain disciplinary actions of the Virginia State Bar regarding attorneys. ... Serving the Commonwealth through 31 judicial circuits, the circuit court is the general jurisdiction trial court with authority to try all types of civil and criminal cases.

judiciallearningcenter.org/state-courts-vs-federal-courts

State court systems vary from state to state, and each is a little different. As you can see from the chart above, the state court system of Missouri is very similar to that of the federal courts. Both have trial courts at the lowest level to hear both civil and criminal cases.

www.justice.gov/usao/justice-101/federal-courts

Courts in the federal system work differently in many ways than state courts. The primary difference for civil cases (as opposed to criminal cases) is the types of cases that can be heard in the federal system. Federal courts are courts of limited jurisdiction, meaning they can only hear cases authorized by the United States Constitution or ...

litigation.findlaw.com/filing-a-lawsuit/federal-or-state...

Federal or State Court Subject Matter Jurisdiction. This article aims to give you the information you need to figure out whether you should file your case in federal or state court. Jurisdiction, put simply, is a fancy word that encompasses a court's power or authority to hear a case.

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jurisdiction

Jurisdiction (from the Latin ius, iuris meaning "law" and dicere meaning "to speak") is the practical authority granted to a legal body to administer justice within a defined field of responsibility, e.g., Michigan tax law. In federations like the United States, areas of jurisdiction apply to local, state, and federal levels; e.g. the court has jurisdiction to apply federal law...

www.nolo.com/legal-encyclopedia/subject-matter...

Alternatively, Elaine could file the lawsuit in New York state court, which would have power to hear the case because the arrest occurred in New York and both Elaine and Officer Kramer live there. The state court has "concurrent jurisdiction" with the federal court and enforces the federal law as it would a state law.

www.uscourts.gov/about

The U.S. Courts were created under Article III of the Constitution to administer justice fairly and impartially, within the jurisdiction established by the Constitution and Congress. This section will help you learn more about the Judicial Branch and its work.