Some medieval illuminated manuscripts are the Book of Kells, the Lindisfarne Gospels, the French Book of Hours, the Rochester Bestiary and the Codex Aureus. Medieval illuminated manuscripts include Bibles, gospels, praye... More »

www.reference.com History Middle Ages

The Perseid meteor shower is visible to viewers in the Northern Hemisphere in the same quadrant of the sky as the constellation Perseus, between the middle of June and the middle of August. The meteor shower is most acti... More »

www.reference.com Science Astronomy Comets & Asteroids

The Vatican Apostolic Library, sometimes simply called the Vatican library, is home to a wide variety of biblical, theological and otherwise scholarly documents. From its conception, the library has specialized particula... More »

www.reference.com Education

For fun during the Middle Ages, peasants danced, wrestled, bet on cockfighting and bear baiting, and played an early version of football. On Sundays, peasants were allowed to rest and go to church. Some pious peasants un... More »

As a result of the Crusades, Europe saw tremendous intellectual growth, a strengthening of the merchant class through expansion in trade and the rise of new banking institutions. Unfortunately, all of these benefits came... More »

Charlemagne, a Frankish king who ruled between 768 and 814 A.D., united most of western Europe under his throne, and created a mini-renaissance that ended Europe's Dark Ages. For this reason, Charlemagne is sometimes ref... More »

In the Shakesperian play "Macbeth," Macduff chooses to flee to England in response to the murder of Duncan by Macbeth to go in support of Malcolm, the son and heir of Duncan. In fleeing to England, however, Macduff conde... More »