Hoop stress is a stress in a pipe wall. It is represented by the forces inside the cylinder acting towards the circumference perpendicular to the length of the pipe.

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The formula for hoop stress is the internal pressure times the internal diameter of the cylinder, divided by twice the wall thickness of the cylinder. The formula is expressed as ?h = (pd)/(2t), where ?h is the hoop stre...

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The American Psychological Association defines stress as "any uncomfortable emotional experience accompanied by predictable biochemical, physiological and behavioral changes." While a part of everyday life, the varying d...

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Pipe-fitting formulas allow pipe fitters and welders to determine how to fit a pipe so it can safely handle any internal pressure or stress from fluids within its wall. For example, Barlow's Formula is used by pipe fitte...

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To calculate the flow rate in a cylindrical pipe, the basic formula, which is flow rate is equivalent to pipe cross-sectional area multiplied by velocity, can be used. Here the area is calculated as pi times pipe diamete...

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The water flow though a pipe is measured by using a mechanical flow meter. These work through positive displacement, where the volume of water flowing though in a given amount of time is measured. Domestic areas typicall...

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Shear stress is calculated by dividing the force exerted on an object by that object's cross-sectional area. Shear stress is one of the three primary stresses present in nature, which also includes tension and compressio...

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