The human digestive system begins in the mouth and ends at the anus. Enzymes in saliva break food down into smaller particles in the mouth. Food is then swallowed and goes through the digestive tract before leaving the bottom through the rectum and anus.
According to Branch Basics, digestion begins in the mouth when the process of chewing starts. Salivary glands will secrete a mucus, which assists in lubricating the food before swallowing.
Chemical digestion is the process by which food is broken down and has most of its nutrients extracted. It is distinct from mechanical digestion, which is the physical breakdown of food as it is chewed.
The primary purpose of bile in the digestive process is to facilitate the digestion and dispersion of consumed fats. According to the Encyclopedia Britannica, this takes place in the lumen of the small intestine.
Chemiosmosis is the process by which chemical ions move from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration across a selectively permeable membrane. Chemiosmosis is the process by which ATP, or adenosine triphosphate, is synthesized.
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The stages of digestion in a human being are the cephalic phase, the gastric phase and the intestinal phase. During these phases, nutrients are broken down to provide fuel for the body.