SLOKA describes BPSK as the simplest form of phase shift keying that uses two phases separated by 180 degrees. In BPSK, it does not matter where exactly the positions of the castellation points are, and they are always s... More »

The main advantage of phase shift keying is that it allows data to be carried along a radio communications signal much more efficiently than with frequent shift keying. PSK is a digital modulation scheme that transports ... More »

Frequency Shift Keying, or FSK, is a modulation technique that transmits digital signals over telephone lines, cables, optical fiber or wireless media. FSK data consist of two binary states, 0 and 1, represented by two d... More » Technology Audio Equipment

A phase locked loop tutorial explains the fundamentals, concepts and operating mechanisms of the phase locked loop. A free phase locked loop tutorial is available online at, and it features text, di... More » Technology Audio Equipment

A compact disc is a form of optical disc that data is written onto and read by lasers. A layer of aluminum is placed on top of a thicker layer of polycarbonate, with the data written into the aluminum layer by creating p... More »

Renew a ham or amateur radio license by completing the form online at the Federal Communications Commission’s Universal Licensing System or by submitting a paper application. The FCC accepts renewal applications 90 days ... More » Technology Audio Equipment

Audio communication is any form of transmission that is based on hearing. Audio communicative forms are found in such platforms as audio books, television, movie soundtracks and music records. More »