Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, or COPD, in its final stage is characterized by significantly reduced quality of life due to shortness of breath, according to Healthline. Life-threatening breathing problems may oc... More »

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Stage 4 is the last stage of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. This is the most severe form of the disease, and it is characterized by extreme airflow limitation, notes Healthline. More »

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Stage 2 COPD is characterized by a pulmonary function test that is 50 to 80 percent of the expected response, according to Healthline. Additionally, people with stage 2 COPD may have moderate-to-severe shortness of breat... More »

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Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, or COPD, causes several side effects, including a persistent cough that produces mucus, a tight feeling in the chest and shortness of breath, particularly after exercising, accordin... More »

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, or COPD, symptoms typically appear later in life. It is difficult for medical researchers to determine the exact effect the condition has on reducing life expectancy, notes Clevelan... More »

Individuals with very mild, stage 1 chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, or COPD, have a normal life expectancy. As the disease progresses, the prognosis worsens. Once individuals are admitted to the intensive care uni... More »

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease shortens life expectancy, but it is difficult to predict precisely how long an individual can live with the disease, according to Healthline. Factors that influence life expectancy i... More »

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