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Characteristics of a tundra biome include large, open areas with no trees; snow and cold temperatures throughout most of the year; little rainfall; and short growing seasons. Tundra is most common around the Arctic, but it also exists near the tops of tall mountains.
People live in the tundra, but large population oscillations often occur because of the extreme cold. According to the Arctic Human Development Report, about 4 million people live in the arctic areas.
The tundra is located along the extreme northern edge of Asia, Europe and North America. The majority of the world's tundra forms a single unbroken belt along the northern reaches of the globe, but isolated patches can be found in the Southern Hemisphere.
On the tundra, people eat primarily a meat-based diet including, seal, whale, walrus, caribou, reindeer, polar bear, muskox, birds and fish. They also gather some of the wild foods that grow in the harsh landscape, such as berries, seaweed, grasses and tubers.
One of the biggest threats to the tundra is global warming. As fossil fuels burn elsewhere on the planet, the atmosphere warms in all locations. This causes melting of permafrost, resulting in the collapse of tundra ecosystems. As permafrost melts, it allows frozen plant material to decay, releasing
According to Discovery.com, many people who live in the alpine tundra in mountainous regions are animal herders. People living in the arctic tundra rely on mining, hunting, nomadic herding or fishing to make a living.
Despite the freezing weather in the Arctic Circle, a vast number of plants thrive in the tundra biome, including different types of mosses, lichens, shrubs, flowers and other low-lying plants. These resilient plants have adapted to the tundra's short growing season and harsh environment.
Despite the harsh climate, the tundra is home to many animals, including herbivores, such as lemmings, voles, and caribou, and predators, such as polar bears, wolves and foxes. In addition to a few species, which inhabit the tundra all year, a number of migratory birds inhabit the area during the su
Soil types common to the tundra include permafrost and polygon soils. Permafrost refers to soil that is permanently frozen 1 to 2 meters below the surface. Polygon soils are cracked, patterned soils created from surface shrinkage due to frozen winter temperatures.