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People live in the tundra, but large population oscillations often occur because of the extreme cold. According to the Arctic Human Development Report, about 4 million people live in the arctic areas.


The tundra is located along the extreme northern edge of Asia, Europe and North America. The majority of the world's tundra forms a single unbroken belt along the northern reaches of the globe, but isolated patches can be found in the Southern Hemisphere.


One of the biggest threats to the tundra is global warming. As fossil fuels burn elsewhere on the planet, the atmosphere warms in all locations. This causes melting of permafrost, resulting in the collapse of tundra ecosystems. As permafrost melts, it allows frozen plant material to decay, releasing


Despite the freezing weather in the Arctic Circle, a vast number of plants thrive in the tundra biome, including different types of mosses, lichens, shrubs, flowers and other low-lying plants. These resilient plants have adapted to the tundra's short growing season and harsh environment.


Tundra vegetation is the plants that grow in regions with extremely cold temperatures year-round. There are two main types of tundra, the arctic and alpine tundra. These two tundras are home to similar types of small shrubs, grasses and mosses.


Despite the harsh climate, the tundra is home to many animals, including herbivores, such as lemmings, voles, and caribou, and predators, such as polar bears, wolves and foxes. In addition to a few species, which inhabit the tundra all year, a number of migratory birds inhabit the area during the su


Tundras have cold, windy climates with low levels of rainfall. Snow is nearly always on the ground, except during summer. The latitudinal range of the tundra is from 60 to 75 degrees north.


The food chain in the tundra consists of carnivores, herbivores and insects. Carnivores, because they are meat eaters, are at the top of the tundra food chain. Insects are at the bottom of the food chain, and herbivores fall in the middle of the chain.


A desert and a tundra are similar in that both of these regions receive little precipitation, have somewhat limited vegetation and experience cold temperatures at night. Along with forest, aquatic and grassland, tundra and desert are among the five major biomes on Earth.


The tundra's primary consumers are herbivores such as musk oxen, lemmings, caribou and arctic hares that consume grass, moss and lichen. These animals provide food for the secondary consumers, which are predators like arctic foxes and polar bears.