In higher vertebrates, such as reptiles, birds and mammals, there are 12 pairs of cranial nerves. Lower vertebrates, such as fish and amphibians, have 10 pairs of cranial nerves. More »

The types of nerves in the human body include afferent, efferent and mixed nerves. Afferent nerves carry information from the receptors in one direction, which is from the body to the brain, while efferent nerves carry n... More »

The brain stem controls breathing and heart rate as well as blood pressure and alertness. Found at the top of the spinal column, the brain stem consists of three main parts, including the medulla oblongata, pons and midb... More »

Alaska is home to more than 1,100 known vertebrates, which includes a variety of birds, reptiles, amphibians, fish and mammals. Some Alaskan birds are the mallard duck, spruce grouse, northern three-toed woodpecker, Stel... More »

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The five main groups of vertebrates, known as classes, are: fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals. Vertebrate species are assigned groups based on shared traits, such as body covering, the ability to maintain a s... More »

Spinal and cranial nerves differ in their development, internal structure and the paths each take to the brain. Spinal nerves travel from their endings through bundles that run to the spinal cord and then into the brain.... More »

There are 31 pairs of spinal nerves in the human body. These nerve pairs are grouped together into their specific region on the spinal cord, including the eight cervical nerves, 12 thoracic, five sacral, one coccygeal an... More »

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