A gear motor is a type of electrical motor that uses low horsepower to produce high torque. The gears in the gear motor transmit power from one part of the machine to another until the desired torque is achieved. Any number of gears in different shapes and sizes can be connected together to achieve one of three things: an increase in speed, an increase in force, and a change in direction.
In a two-gear setting, if the number of teeth on one gear is greater than the second one, the gear with less teeth has to turn more to keep up. Turning the gear with more teeth makes the gear with less teeth turn faster, but with less force needed. This setup is meant to increase gear speed.
Conversely, if the first gear has less teeth than the second one, the latter turns slower than the first one, but with more power. This setup is intended to increase the gear motor's force.
Gear motors can also be used to change the direction of a device or equipment. When two gears come together, one turns clockwise, while the other turns counter clockwise. Gear motor manufacturers use specially-shaped gears to make use of this process to make a device or equipment turn at an angle. A good example of this is the differential gears in the car, where cone-shaped bevel gears are employed to transmit the driveshaft's power and send back wheels on reverse.