Camper air conditioning units work by removing the heat from the interiors and disposing it outside via the vents located on the roof of the vehicle. Heat removal occurs when the condensed refrigerant in the air conditioner changes from liquid to gas by the action of the unit's evaporator. The energy required for heat removal is sourced from a home, generator, solar panels or gasoline.
The air conditioning unit of a camper comprises of a condenser, compressor, evaporator and condenser and evaporator fans and the refrigerant. The various parts of the air conditioner are connected electrically.
To remove heat from within the camper, the compressor first condenses the refrigerant gas. The heat generated alongside is removed by the condenser fans, thus cooling the gas and turning it into a liquid. This liquid then moves to the evaporator via capillary tubes.
As the liquid slides over the evaporator fans, it absorbs the heat inside the camper and turns into a gas. The suction created by the compressor removes the heated gas, and condenses it to continue the heat removal process.
The air conditioner in a camper requires AC power that is obtained from a 120-volt socket connected to a home or a generator. If gasoline is used, the unit may require 1 gallon of fuel per hour. Solar panels affixed to the camper store energy and are a cheaper energy source.