A static IP address is one that does not change if the computer is disconnected and reconnected to the network. It requires manual configuration, but it offers several advantages.
When computers connect to a LAN, they are typically given IP addresses through DHCP, which assigns an available IP address. While this makes connecting to a network simpler, it can make it difficult to connect devices to each other since their IP addresses can change. Many businesses, and even some home users, assign their devices addresses manually. However, it is sometimes possible to tell a router or other piece of equipment to assign a particular IP address to specific machines.