The optical physics of cameras were described separately by Chinese and Greek scientists in the 4th and 5th centuries B.C., and digital cameras have replaced traditional film formats, as of September 2014. The first image created with a camera obscura, or a pinhole camera, was in 1814, while the final roll of Kodachrome film produced by Kodak came out of the factory in 2010.
Camera inventions and improvements continued from Joseph Niepce's 1814 image. Alexander Wolcott received the first American patent for a camera in 1840. The first roll-type film camera was invented in 1888 by George Eastman for the Kodak company. The first mass-marketed camera was called the Brownie, and it was first produced in 1900. The Polaroid camera started in 1948, whereas the Canon introduced the first digital camera in 1984.
Subjects of the photographs on the final roll of Kodachrome film include Robert de Niro, Indian filmmaker Aamir Khan, Amitabh Bachchan and several photographs of everyday life in India, New York and Parsons, Kan. National Geographic photojournalist Steve McCurry consumed the final roll of Kodachrome film in the summer of 2010, and Parsons, Kan., is the town where the final roll was developed.
As of statistics in 2012, four out of five digital cameras shipped by members of the Camera and Imaging Products Association were fixed-lens compact models. Sales figures as of October 2013 indicated 70 percent of all cameras sold are compact digital cameras.