The extended ping is a command provided by a Cisco device's operating system. An extended ping allows the network administrator greater control over the specified options for a ping test. This allows the user to perform a more advanced check into host availability and network connectivity, says Cisco.com.
A standard ping command asks nearby devices, "Who's there?" and reports replies to the user. An extended ping prompts for specific types of protocols to answer, "Who's there?" The most commonly used protocol is IP address, but extended ping can also reach protocols such as appletalk, decnet or vines, says Cisco.com.
Extended ping can also change the ping's data size. This allows the user to determine if the network is having connectivity issues related to larger data transfers. It can also report the timeout interval in seconds, allowing the user to dictate whether the ping is successful based on whether an echo packet is received prior to the user-created time interval.
Extended ping can also identify the source interface, or device source, of the ping. Identifying the source interface allows the user to determine if the standard ping is failing because the receiving router cannot see all interfaces of the origin router.