Individuals and organizations may apply for federal grants in the United States through the Grants.gov program management system, according to Grants.gov. The grant application process involves several steps including the procurement of a D-U-N-S number, registration with System for Award Management (SAM) and completion of the grant application package.
Funding opportunities for federal grants are listed along with individual application packages and separate requirements for each package, according to Grants.gov. This system permits applicants to register for a grant and track the progress of an application through a CFDA Number. The grant application package includes all application forms relevant to the area of research, mandatory budgeting information and any other information required by the funding agency. Individual applicants may register in less than one working day while organizational applicants need to ensure the registration of an Authorized Organization Representative (AOR)--a process that may take up to seven working days.
Small businesses and universities working in the area of technological research may apply for direct grants from the Office of Science, according to the U.S. Department of Energy. Organizations in the United States for research, education and technology development may apply through the Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) and Small Business Technology Transfer (STTR) programs administered by various departments of the United States government. SBIR and STTR funding opportunities may list individual and organizational requirements through a funding opportunities calendar.