Bluetooth works by transmitting data through radio waves that operate at a low power level and a specific frequency to create an uninterrupted connection between two devices. The frequency that Bluetooth operates falls between 2.402 and 2.480 gigahertz and has been reserved for industrial, scientific and medical device use internationally. To avoid causing interruptions with other devices operating in the same radio range, Bluetooth signals are emitted at one miliwatts.
Due to the low power that's used to emit signals, the effective range of most Bluetooth devices is capped at approximately 32 feet. However, certain special classes of Bluetooth devices can have signal ranges up to 320 feet. This low range further removes any possibility of interference between a Bluetooth signal and any signals emitted by computers, telephones or electronic devices operating in the same frequency range.
As of 2014, up to eight devices can be connected through Bluetooth simultaneously. To avoid interference in the network, Bluetooth will randomly associate a device with 79 random frequencies which will change at a rate of up to 1,600 times per second.
Bluetooth technology was invented in 1994 by the company Ericsson and, as of 2014, is managed by the Bluetooth Special Interest Group.