Bluetooth is a form of technology that allows electronic devices to transmit and receive data wirelessly across short distances. This technology utilizes low-power, short-wavelength radio waves to establish a link between two or more devices that support Bluetooth. As a networking standard, it operates on two levels: physical and protocol. The physical level includes the radio frequencies, whereas the protocol level handles the accuracy and means of data transmission.
One of the main advantages of Bluetooth is that it removes the need for user intervention by automating the communication process between various devices and peripherals, in addition to requiring little power. Its primary function is to serve as a way to connect multiple electronic devices, such as cellphones, tablets and wireless headsets, in a short-range network that is immune to outside interference. The typical range of such networks is around 10 meters, while the speed of communication generally stays below 1 megabit per second.
Bluetooth avoids interference by utilizing very weak signals. The signal strength of about 1 milliwatt is also responsible for its short range, although it’s still capable of penetrating obstacles such as walls, allowing devices in different rooms to communicate without problems. Additionally, it allows up to eight devices to connect at the same time. Interference in that scenario is avoided by using spread-spectrum frequency hopping, which allows Bluetooth to modify the radio frequencies at which devices transmit signals. This feature also makes the connection immune to interference from devices outside the scope of a Bluetooth network, such as baby monitors or portable phones.