A motherboard is the main printed circuit board found in computers. It contains the computer’s basic circuitry. Its main components include RAM slots, CPU chip, IDE slots, SATA ports, CPU slot, CMOS battery, chipsets, BIOS chip, CPU clock, parallel port, mouse and keyboard connectors, floppy controller, PCI slot, video card slot, expansion slots and USB.
The CPU chip is one of the most important components on the motherboard. Also known as the processor, it is responsible for fetching, decoding and executing program instructions. It also performs mathematical and logical calculations.
The chipsets include the main memory, the CPU and the secondary cache. The two main chipsets are the Northbridge also known as the memory controller, and the Southbridge also called the input/output controller.
The Northbridge controls transfers between the RAM and processor, whereas the Southbridge handles communications between the process and slower peripheral devices such as sound cards, keyboard, mouse and serial ports.
The BIOS short for Basic Input/Output System also known as the device drivers, controls the system hardware. It also acts as an interface between the hardware and the operating system.
The IDE short for Intergrated Drive Electronics and SATA short for Serial Advanced Technology Attachment provide connectivity for the storage devices.