The Springfield Model 1903 is a .30 caliber bolt-action rifle developed by the Springfield Armory in 1903. It is roughly based on the German-made Mauser of the late 1890s, but includes several distinct alterations. It was in service used by the U.S. military from 1903 to 1974.
During the Spanish-American War of 1898, the U.S. army was dissatisfied with the performance of their main battle rifle in comparison to the Mausers used by the Spanish. Over the next five years, a combination of research and licensing led to the creation of the M1903. It was used as the main armament for U.S. troops in WWI and early WWII. After 1943, it was used almost exclusively as a sniper rifle, primarily by the Marine Corps.