There are a variety of factors that determine the best rifle shot for large game animals like elk and bear. The accuracy of the shooter is much more important than velocity, bore size or grain weight. Experts generally recommend 30-06, 7mm-08 or a .308 Winchester for hunting large game.
According to the Alaska Department of Fish and Game, large targets such as moose, elk or bears should be approached with caution. Large-caliber magnum rounds like the .300, .338, .375, or .416 aren't recommended. Additionally, hunters should consider using a bolt-action rifle for its mechanical simplicity and proven reliability in wet and cold environments.