A list of all the dates on which a Super Bowl has been played is found on Pro-Football-Reference's Super Bowl page. There have been 52 Super Bowls, and they have all taken place in January or February.
The earliest Super Bowl played was Super Bowl XI, which took place on Jan. 9, 1977. The latest date on which a Super Bowl has taken place is February 7. Super Bowl XLIV and Super Bowl 50 both took place on February 7.
The game has always taken place on a Sunday. Originally, Super Bowls were played in the middle of January. Gradually, the Super Bowl took place at a later date as the NFL regular season and postseason were extended. The first February Super Bowl took place in 2002, and there has not been a January Super Bowl since 2003.