The Arctic lowlands were formed by sheets of ice moving across the land, called glaciation. As the glaciers moved across the lowlands, they dug up sediment and gave the surface a rolling, corrugated look.
The Arctic lowlands were formed by the movement of glaciers across the surface 7,500 years ago, according to The Canadian Encyclopedia. The lowlands in the Arctic Archipelago were formed not only by glaciation, but by faulting in the rock, which also accounts for the channels between the islands. Although the glaciers have long disappeared from the Arctic lowlands, the land still remains frozen for most of the year, making farming impossible. However, the lowlands are formed of sedimentary rock, which is rich in coal, oil, natural gas and limestone.
The Arctic lowlands include the Arctic Archipelago and are located in northern Canada, lying roughly between the northern Innuitian region and the southern Canadian Shield. The Arctic Lowlands along with the Arctic Coastal Plains make up a fourth of Canada. The fresh water in the Arctic lowlands are covered with ice 10 months of the year, only free of ice in July and August. Despite the severe cold, polar bears, muskox and arctic fox thrive in the lowlands.