Venera 7 was a scientific mission launched by the Soviet Union to study Venus from the surface. In 1970, the probe became the first space probe to transmit from the surface of another planet.
The Venera 7 mission was largely successful, though the probe tipped over on landing. Previous Venera probes had failed under the extreme conditions of the Venusian atmosphere, but the Venera 7 probe was built specifically to endure high temperatures and extreme pressures. Venera 7's lander was chilled to below freezing before beginning its descent, and it managed to record data for approximately 23 minutes, though it had difficulty transmitting from its tipped-over position.