The vegetation of the subarctic climate includes fireweed, dwarf scouring rush and spruce. Fireweed is also known as rosebay willowherb. It is the national flower of Russia and thrives in disturbed areas. One plant can produce tens of thousands of seeds, but the seeds are not long lived.
Fireweed is a plant with a profusion of pink or rosy-purple flowers that has been known to grow as high as 9 feet tall.
Dwarf scouring rush is a type of horsetail, which is a non-flowering plant. They are found in sandy pools and sites that are rich in lime. The plant can grow erect, with blue-green stems as high as 2.6 feet, or it can be somewhat prostate. It has a rough feel that gives it its name.
Spruce are evergreen, coniferous trees. The cones have papery scales, and the needles are sharp and stiff and not as flexible as the needles of fir trees. They can sometimes linger on a tree for as long as 10 years. The bark can be reddish brown or gray and can be scaly and furrowed. These trees can grow to between 200 and 300 feet tall. At least one example of a spruce tree is known to be over 800 years old.