What Are the Various Specialized Structures in a Eukaryotic Cell?

Structures inside a eukaryotic cell include a nucleus, genetic material, a plasma membrane, ribosomes and a cytoplasm. The majority of eukaryotic cells also include internal structures within their membranes, known as organelles. Mitochrondria, golgi bodies, lysosomes, endoplasmic reticulum and vesicles are the different types of organelles.

A eukaryotic cell is a cell that contains a membrane-bound nucleus. The nucleus is the control center of the cell, and it is sometimes referred to as the brain as it dictates how the cell grows, reproduces and functions. Information needed to carry out these activities is contained in long, stringy molecules of deoxyribonucleic acid, or DNA. DNA is protected by the nucleus. Chromosomes composed of DNA and proteins are also housed inside the nucleus in the chromatin. Also located inside the nucleus is the nucleolus, which houses nucleic acid and proteins.

The nuclear membrane contains pores through which the nucleus communicates with other parts of the cell. This membrane also controls traffic into the nucleus. Ribosomes are composed of proteins and RNA. Ribosomes work to convert mRNA into protein. The cytoplasm is a thick, gel-like fluid that holds cellular components in suspension. The cytoskeleton is a structure composed of protein that traffics cell particles. The cytoskeleton heavily influences the cell's structure and function,