The valence electron configuration of Pb is [Xe] 4f14 5d10 6s2 6p2, or 2, 8, 18, 32, 18, 4 electrons per shell. It has four valence electrons in the outermost shell. Lead is placed in group 14 or p-block and Period 6 of the periodic table of elements.
The symbol Pb stands for the element Lead and is derived from the Latin Plumbum. The atomic number of Lead is 82, and its atomic weight is 207.2 atomic mass units, while its density is 11.34 grams per centimeter cubed.
Lead is obtained from its sulphide ore Galena by roasting of the ore. It is a solid at room temperature and melts at 621.43 degrees Fahrenheit.
Pure and freshly cut lead is soft, malleable and bluish white, and is a heavy transition metal placed in the carbon group. When it is exposed to air, it turns grayish and loses some of its luster. Lead is the heaviest non-radioactive element, but it is poisonous and damages the nervous system if ingested. Lead poisoning can damage the brain, and it is a known carcinogen.
Lead does not corrode easily, and this property makes it popular to use for pipes and paint preparations. Lead was used as a petrol additive, but this use is now banned. It is now used in car batteries, ammunition and for protection against radiation.