What Does Urine Consist Of?

Normal, healthy urine typically contains 95 percent water and 5 percent solutes. The solutes include elemental ions, such as potassium, calcium and chlorine. Solutes may also include urea, uric acid, creatine, hormones, fatty acids, carbohydrates and enzymes.

Typically, healthy urine is yellow to clear in color. The color depends on the balance of water and solutes in the urine. People who are dehydrated have more solutes than water in their urine and thus have darker urine. Normal urine also has a pH between 4.6 and 8. Any pH below 7 is considered to be acidic and anything above 7 is considered to be basic. The pH of normal urine is dependent on diet. For example, people who eat high-protein diets often have acidic urine, and vegetarians often have more basic urine.