Two components make the backbone in DNA, being the deoxy-ribose and phosphate molecules. These molecules link together in a staggered pattern where the deoxy-ribose and phosphate molecules follow one another, like the backbone of a zipper. Deoxy-ribose is a type of sugar molecule where the adenine, guanine, cytosine and thymine molecules attach a covalent bond. The phosphate molecules bond with the deoxy-ribose molecule acting like anchors in DNA.Continue Reading
The structure of a deoxy-ribose molecule is five carbon atoms in a ring with oxygen atoms or oxygen and hydrogen molecules attaching themselves to the carbon. Deoxy-ribose has one fewer oxygen atom than ribose, which is one of the differences between DNA and RNA. Phosphorus and oxygen atoms with oxygen and hydrogen molecules comprise the elements of a phosphate molecule in DNA. Carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and phosphorus in the right amount and combination is all it takes for nature to create a backbone for DNA.
Science explains the way deoxy-ribose and phosphorous molecules stay together as the 3- and 5-prime phosphodiester linkage. This is simply a way of keeping track of the phosphate and deoxy-ribose molecules where 5 ends a phosphate and 3 ends a deoxy-ribose molecule. This linkage is true in all DNA molecules.Learn more about Molecular Biology & DNA
DNA ligase is an enzyme that repairs irregularities or breaks in the backbone of double-stranded DNA molecules. It has three general functions: It seals repairs in the DNA, it seals recombination fragments, and it connects Okazaki fragments (small DNA fragments formed during the replication of double-stranded DNA). DNA ligase functions by forming a bond between the end of a “donor” nucleotide and the end of an “acceptor” nucleotide.Full Answer >
According to The Tech Museum of Innovation, DNA is soluble in water because the sugar and phosphate molecules that make up the DNA backbone are hydrophilic. DNA bases are hydrophobic but are protected from the water by the DNA backbones of the two DNA strands.Full Answer >
The process of DNA replication takes one parental DNA molecule and creates two daughter DNA molecules. This process occurs in the nucleus of the cell and occurs during the cell cycle in eukaryotic cells.Full Answer >
When DNA is denatured, the hydrogen bonds that hold the double helix together break apart, separating the DNA molecule into two single strands. Denaturation occurs as the temperature increases, according to Ian VanLare, Professor of Biology at Tusculum College.Full Answer >