DNA is double-stranded and contains the base thymine, whereas RNA is single-stranded and contains the base uracil. DNA also contains the sugar deoxyribose in contrast to RNA, which contains the sugar ribose.
DNA is required for the storage and reproduction of genetic information. Each gene codes for a particular protein. This information is transcribed from the DNA onto an RNA copy.
This strand of RNA travels to the ribosome, where it is translated into amino acids that come together to form a protein. Finally, the protein undergoes post-translational modifications before being sent out into the cell to perform its specific function.