A typhoon is the same thing as a hurricane or cyclone. They are called different names depending on where they occur. Typhoons are the name used for tropical cyclones in the Northwest Pacific, specifically to the west of 180 degrees on a map, where the Japanese Meteorological Agency tracks them.
Typhoons only occur when there is already a weather disturbance happening. Usually, tropical cyclones come from fairly light winds, moisture and warm tropical waters that eventually combine with the preceding weather. The resulting typhoon is recognized by massive waves, harsh winds, tremendous rainfall and flooding. A super typhoon is an unusually powerful typhoon, usually equivalent to a Category 4 or 5 hurricane.