Types of water wells include dug wells, drilled wells and driven wells. Dug wells are wells excavated by hand using shovels and picks. This is possible if the water table is not deep and the ground is supple. This type of well is dug down just beneath the water table.
A dug well is lined with brick, tile, stones or any other material that can help prevent collapse. A well cap made of stone, wood, or concrete is used for covering the well. Dug wells are low tech and inexpensive as they utilize manual labor to reach groundwater. They are inexpensive to operate and maintain because water is drawn out using hand bailing, and a pump is not required. A major drawback with dug wells is that they are vulnerable to surface water contamination.
Driven wells are created by driving a pipe into soft ground, such as gravel or thick sand. A perforated pipe or screen is attached at the end of the pipe to allow water to flow into the well as well as to filter out sediment. Driven wells may be deeper than dug wells, but they are still quite shallow, making them susceptible to contamination by surface pollutants.
Drilled wells compared to driven and dug wells are modern, expensive and high-tech. They are also deeper; a drilled well can be 3,000 feet deep. They are created using cable tools or table rotary drilling machines.