The two most important factors in temperature are the intensity and duration of insolation, or solar energy received by the sun. These temperature factors vary by the latitude and longitude of a location as well as the season.
An example of duration of insolation is the length of days during different seasons. For example, the winter season has shorter days, resulting in a shorter duration of insolation and a lower temperature. The exceptions are areas near the equator. These areas have a relatively constant length of day each season and experience more consistent temperatures as a result. Equator regions also have a lower angle of incidence, resulting in a higher intensity of insolation.
Other factors that influence temperature include altitude, cloud cover, ocean currents and continental effects.