Tsunamis occur most often in the Pacific Ocean and Indian Ocean, according to the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration’s Center for Tsunami Research. Areas along the Pacific Rim are most vulnerable due to the frequent earthquakes that occur. Tsunamis also occur less frequently in the Mediterranean Sea.
According to researchers at Geoscience Australia, a tsunami hits the Australian coast every couple of years. Tsunamis also have a history of landfall in Sri Lanka, Sumatra and India. Scientists expect tsunamis to eventually form in the Caribbean as well. Tsunamis occur due to the movement of tectonic plates in the ocean. The quick motion of the plates triggers the ocean water to move and down, which carries a wave for a long distance.