The most common cause of tsunamis is from undersea earthquakes on the ocean floor. Submarine landslides and volcanic eruptions also cause tsunamis. On very rare occasions, a meteorite impact in the ocean results in a tsunami. Any event that displaces a significant amount of water in a short period of time can cause a tsunami.Continue Reading
Not all undersea earthquakes cause tsunamis. The quake must cause part of the crust to lift up like a gigantic paddle, displacing a large volume of water. If the quake happens deep in the crust or the crust is not displaced significantly, then a tsunami is not likely to occur. Strong, shallow quakes produce more tsunamis. Tsunamis are difficult to detect on the open ocean since the wave does not rise very far above the ocean's surface. As the tsunami approaches shallower water, the water piles up and causes a much taller wave.
Volcanic eruptions also cause tsunamis, such as the waves produced when the Indonesian volcano Krakatoa erupted in 1883. Superheated gas and rock from the volcano flowed into the sea, which displaced a huge volume of water and caused tsunamis. These waves were felt as far away as South Africa. Many villages were destroyed by these waves, and more than 36,000 people died.Learn more about Storms
Tsunamis do not get names like hurricanes and typhoons, but some of the most famous and devastating tsunamis include the Indonesian tsunami on December 26, 2004, the tsunami that hit Japan on March 11, 2011, and a tsunami that hit Portugal on November 1, 1755. Tsunamis show how powerless the general population is at the hands of mother nature.Full Answer >
According to National Geographic, tsunamis can be caused by underwater landslides or volcanic eruptions, and are generated from the epicenter of the shift. The movement of tectonic plates causes water displacement, which creates a rolling wave that can travel over water at up to 500 miles per hour.Full Answer >
Tsunamis generally begin with the vertical movement of the earth's crust on the ocean floor. The movement displaces the water above, creating a wave. As the wave reaches shore, its amplitude increases.Full Answer >
The height of a tsunami is determined by the depth of water at the point where it starts. Tsunami wave heights of up to 50 feet have been recorded, according to Wikipedia.Full Answer >