Translation of the messenger RNA (mRNA) occurs in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells. The mRNA is synthesized inside the nucleus and is then transported to the cytoplasm where the pool of amino acids is present to start assembling the polypeptide chain.
Protein synthesis in eukaryotic cells involves transcription and translation. Transcription involves the copying of a segment of DNA that codes for the protein onto an mRNA molecule. This step takes place in the nucleus, since DNA is present there. The mRNA has to exit the nucleus to complete the production of proteins, since the amino acids required for the process are present in the cytoplasm, as are the ribsomes, which are the organelles where the polypeptide chain is synthesized.