Transcription takes place in the cell's nucleus where the DNA that is needed for the process is held. Transcription is the first of many steps that take place in the process of gene expression. Transcription transfers genetic information from the cells DNA to its RNA.
DNA is a type of blueprint that tells the cells how to create proteins that are needed to fuel the cell and reproduce. The cell cannot understand these instructions without help though. The RNA comes in at this point and translates the information into a language the cells can understand. The process of transcription unzips the DNA by breaking the hydrogen bonds that hold it together. The mRNA is then able to move along the DNA strand, picking up the information it needs to begin to process the protein. This piece of RNA is referred to as a primary transcript.
The RNA is modified and synthesized by RNA polymerases, which are multi-subunit complexes found in all cells. The nucleotides of the RNA mesh with the complimentary ones on the DNA. Once all of the information is passed, the RNA strand will detach from those locations and the DNA strand will re-zip itself until the process needs to occur again. The processing of the RNA includes adding a cap and tail to the strand, then splicing it so that it is prepared to move into the translation phase.