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# What are the three laws of thermodynamics?

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The three laws of thermodynamics are: the zeroth law of thermodynamics, the first law of thermodynamics and the second law of thermodynamics. Each law explains physical properties of thermodynamic systems that help in understanding and predicting the operations of the system.

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The zeroth law of thermodynamics incorporates fundamental definitions of thermodynamic equilibrium, which result in the broad scale definition of temperature. According to the law, two systems that are in a thermal equilibrium with another system are also in a thermal equilibrium with each other. The first law of thermodynamics associates the various forms of potential and kinetic energies of a system with the work the system can perform and heat transfer, and it defines the internal energy of a system. According to the first law, the change in the energy of a system is equal to the difference between the heat energy transferred into the system and the work done by the system. The first law also introduces enthalpy, which is a state variable. Many states of systems can theoretically exist according to the first law, but observation points to the existence of only a few. The second law of thermodynamics introduces entropy, another state variable. The law states that the cumulative entropy of a closed system always increases. The change in entropy can't be negative.

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## Related Questions

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The second law of thermodynamics states that the entropy, or disorder, of a closed system has a tendency to increase. Restoring order to an entropic system by separating the oxygen from the nitrogen in a room, for example, or driving water uphill, requires that more energy be added to the system than could be extracted from it.

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An isochoric process is a process in thermodynamics where the performance of work depends on the volume. The volume of a closed system undergoing an isovolumetric process remains constant during the process. In this case, the system does not work because the volume is constant.

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The first law of thermodynamics states that energy can neither be created nor destroyed. The total amount of energy in the universe or in any dynamic system always remains constant. The law also states that energy can only be transformed from one form to another form.