The three laws of motion were introduced by Sir Isaac Newton, and they provide a method of interpreting the motion of objects through the physical universe. The laws define how the motion of an object can change when considered in relation to the force and mass of the object.
The first of Newton's law of motion states that for an object's motion to change, some kind of force must act or be exerted on it. This first law is also referred to as the Law of Inertia and also states an object doesn't move or change its velocity unless there is a force that is exerted on it. The second law further defines the connection between the mass of the object and how fast it can accelerate depending on how much force is exerted on it. The third law of motion states that for any force that is generated on an object, an equal and opposite force is exerted to the object that generated the initial force.
Newton first introduced his three laws of motion in 1687 in his book, "Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy." This book also contained Newton's theory of universal gravitation and, alongside his three laws of motion, makes up the foundation of classical mechanics.