Common table sugar or sucrose is a compound composed of the elements carbon, hydrogen and oxygen. It is disaccharide that has the chemical formula C12H22O11. Disaccharides are molecules that consist of two monosaccharides connected by a glycosidic bond.
The two monosaccharides found in sucrose are one molecule each of glucose and fructose, which are simple sugars. Sucrose's molecular weight is 342.296 grams per mole. The manufacture of sucrose involves processing sugar canes or sugar beets.
Some other disaccharides are maltose and lactose. Lactose is called milk sugar, while maltose is called beer sugar. Although maltose and lactose have the same chemical formula as sucrose, their bonding involves different monosaccharides. Maltose consists of two molecules of glucose, and lactose is made up of one molecule each of galactose and glucose.