Submerged fermentation is a method of manufacturing biomolecules in which enzymes and other reactive compounds are submerged in a liquid such as alcohol, oil or a nutrient broth. The process is used for a variety of purposes, mostly in industrial manufacturing.
Submerged fermentation takes place in large tanks that are filled with liquid and then seeded with microorganisms that trigger the fermentation process. Fermentation usually takes several days to complete, and a steady stream of oxygen must be circulated through the tanks the entire time. Other variables that affect submerged fermentation include the pH level of the liquid, temperature and ionic strength.