The structure of a phenyl group is a six-carbon ring that has alternating double and single bonds. The general formula for the phenyl group is C6H5. Phenyl groups are functional groups in organic chemistry. They can also be called phenyl rings due to their structural ring shape.
Due to the six-carbon ring conjugation, the compound also has five hydrogen atoms. The six carbons of the ring have a planar structure instead of a three dimensional structure. Phenyl groups are very closely related to benzene rings which have the structure C6H6. They can be derived from benzene rings and react in similar reactions.
Phenyl groups are extremely hydrophobic and non-polar. They also do not undergo oxidation or reduction very easily. Due to these characteristics, phenyl groups are highly stable substituents and can be added easily to other compounds during chemical reactions.
Phenyl groups undergo electrophilic aromatic substitution reactions. Chemists can add phenyl groups to other molecules using the electrophilic aromatic substitution reaction. As a reagent, phenyl groups will act as either the phenyl cation or the phenyl anion. The phenyl cation allows nucleophiles to attack the phenyl group and add to it. The phenyl anion allows electrophiles to attack the phenyl group and add to it. Drugs such as Lipitor and Allegra utilize the phenyl group system to obtain their desired effects.