According to the octet rule, atoms tend to gain, lose or share electrons in order to achieve a full set of valence electrons. When their valence shells gain a full complement of valence electrons, atoms become especially stable. An element tends to take the shortest path to achieving a full valence shell, whether that means gaining or losing an electron.Continue Reading
Atoms are comprised of a nucleus that contains the protons and neutrons with a cloud of electrons that circles the nucleus in orbitals. The outermost orbital shell of an atom is called its valence shell, and the electrons located in that shell are called the valence electrons. A completely filled shell contains eight valence electrons. During chemical reactions, extra valence electrons can be gained from another atom's valence shell, lost, or shared with another element to form chemical bonds. Valence electrons are the highest energy electrons in an atom and are the most reactive.
Elements that are lower in the periodic table, with an atomic number of 20 or lower, are more likely to follow the octet rule. The six noble gases, which are helium, neon, argon, krypton, xenon and radon, have completely filled valence shells and are the most stable elements on the periodic table.Learn more about Particle Physics
The compound calcium nitrate consists of a total of nine atoms, including one atom of calcium, two of nitrogen and six of oxygen. Calcium nitrate has the molecular formula Ca(NO3)2 and a molecular weight of 164.08 grams per mole.Full Answer >
Ernest Rutherford made several discoveries, the most notable ones were the discovery of the nucleus in atoms, radiation half-life and the differentiation between alpha and beta radiation. Out of all of his discoveries, the discovery of the nucleus is possible his most well known one. The majority of Rutherford's work was accomplished after he was already a Nobel Prize laureate.Full Answer >
The modern atomic theory is a theory that all matter is composed of tiny particles called atoms. This theory is used in physics and chemistry to explain the behavior of all matter.Full Answer >
Brownian motion is caused by the impact of fluid molecules or atoms in rapid and random motion from heat on small particles suspended in the fluid. Brownian motion, which tends to disperse particles as widely as possible, is the major force in diffusion. Brownian motion occurs in small suspended particles, regardless of any overall movement or current in the suspending fluid.Full Answer >